Here's what Wikepedia has to say, which explains why "Evangeline" is a factor in both Canada's Maritime Provinces, and in the American State Louisiana:
The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation and Le Grand Dérangement, was
the forced removal by the British of the Acadian
people from the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince
Edward Island and northern Maine — parts of an area also known as Acadia.[b] The
Expulsion (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian War (the North American theatre
of the Seven Years' War)[c] and
was part of the British military campaign against New France. The British first deported Acadians to the Thirteen
Colonies, and after 1758, transported additional Acadians to Britain and France. In all, of the 14,100 Acadians in the region, approximately 11,500 Acadians were deported.[d] A
census of 1764 indicates that 2,600 Acadians remained in the colony having eluded capture.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the British captured
Port Royal, the capital of the colony, in a siege. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which concluded the conflict,
ceded the colony to Great Britain while allowing the Acadians to keep their lands. Over the next forty-five years, however, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. During the same period, some also participated in various
military operations against the British, and maintained supply lines to the French fortresses of Louisbourg and Fort
a result, the British sought to eliminate any future military threat posed by the Acadians and to permanently cut the supply lines they provided to Louisbourg by removing them from the area.
Without making distinctions between the Acadians who had been neutral and those who had resisted the occupation of Acadia, the British governor Charles
Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council ordered them to be expelled.[e] In
the first wave of the expulsion, Acadians were deported to other British North American colonies. During the second wave, they were deported to Britain and France, and from there a significant number migrated to Spanish
Louisiana, where "Acadians" eventually became "Cajuns"
Evangeline is a fictional character in a long (and famous) poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, published in 1847. She has become a symbol of Acadian (and Cajun) society ever since. In addition to the railway in Canada, one of VIA Rail's name trains (discontinued
a while ago presumably due to budget cuts) was named after "her" as well.