Re: Hauling Sand before Covered Hoppers Became Popular
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There are two varieties of sand (and probably further distinctions can be made of each). There’s beach sand, which is rounded grains (also what’s in the Sahara desert) from the wave (and wind) action. I would surmise that variety of sand would need to be covered so it doesn’t blow away.
The other variety is angular sand, which comes from (typically) sand pits away from water. Angular sand is required for use in concrete, as it will lock together with the cement matrix to form a solid durable structure. I would guess that angular sand >might< be shipped without being covered as it would be less likely to blow away in transit.
And at this point I will point out one of my pet issues with the distinction between concrete and cement. Cement is an element in making concrete. Cement is not, directly, concrete.
From: main@RealSTMFC.groups.io <main@RealSTMFC.groups.io> On Behalf Of reporterllc via groups.io
Sent: Monday, June 08, 2020 10:17 PM
Subject: [RealSTMFC] Hauling Sand before Coverd Hoppers Became Popular
What kind of car was used? I am referring to bulk sand from a pit that ships out sand and gravel. Perhaps this sand would not be that specialized. Wouldn't it need to be protected from the weather? On a side note, In the early 1970s (long after covered hoppers became popular) I remember a tower operator referring to an ancient gondola in a consist loaded with sand. I did not see it and wondered if it was covered.