Tony Thompson Wrote:
<<I don't understand these statements. The minimum resting time
was 5 hours, and animals could not be reloaded into dirty cars or with
old bedding. If I understand the rules correctly, there was no
alternative to cleaned and rebedded cars. I am not aware that the
livestock rules were waived during World War II. But if someone has
contrary info, I'd like to hear it.>>
The minimum resting time of five hours was mandated by The Livestock Twenty-Eight Hour Act which contains no provisions relating to cleaning cars or bedding. What is the source for rules stating livestock could not be loaded into dirty cars? It is plausible that individuals railroads had such rules, but I have yet to see any solid information that the US roads were required to clean cars and add fresh bedding per each loading. I can offer the following information which seems not to support any such rule(s).
The ARA's Transportation Division issued its first pamphlet covering the loading of livestock in 1925. As originally published the pamphlet covered only the loading and transport of hogs; there is no reference to cleaning cars aside from one statement, "During hot weather load in a clean car, bedded preferably with sand, and wet down the bedding and interior of car before loading."
The pamphlet was revised in 1933 to include all forms of livestock. Two general rules to consider; (2) Cars containing bedding that makes them unfit for loading should be cleaned., (3) Accumulation of winter bedding should be removed from cars in time to condition them for spring loading. No reference to cleaning cars in general before loading any type of livestock is within the pamphlet.
The AAR's 1942 revision of the pamphlet contains the following statements within the general rules; (2) In cars for interstate shipment, bedding which makes cars unfit for loading must be removed and replaced with new and suitable bedding. The Railways of Canada are required, when shipments arrive at destination, to thoroughly clean and disinfect cars before putting them in use again., (28) In bold lettering - Before reloading, condition of the bedding must be determined and more bedding added or cars rebedded if necessary. Why would the AAR cite the Canadien statute and not one associated with cars of the United States' railroads (if such rules existed)?
During the mid 1920s much controversy arose over Car Service Rule No. 16 which (in effect) stated that cars should not be accepted for interchange which contain any sort of debris or dunnage. During the annual meeting of the Transportation Division (1925) The ARA's Committee on Car Service Rules discussed whether, or not, Rule 16 was mandatory and also if the rule was supersceded by Interchange Rule No. 2. The committee report concluded that the rule was not mandatory, but all railroads should strive to delivery cars in a clean condition as a matter of courtesy.
During 1926 The Per Diem Rules Arbitration Committee was called upon to settle dispute between the CNW and the Peoria & Eastern Railway. Within the case presented by the CNW Mr. Halberg stated, "Stock cars are always offered in interchange containing more or less dirt, manure or rufuse. In the winter time it would be impossible to clean these cars." Within the P&ER's rebuttal Mr. L. D. Rose stated, "Concerning interchange of stock cars--Car Service Rule No. 16 does not differentiate as between classes of equipment, the rule is equally applicable to stock cars if conditions require the cleaning of such cars. It is well known, however, that in the handling of stock it is not always necessary to provide a strictly clean car, the shipper is often and in fact frequently satisfied to save expense by using old bedding which was in the car."
The ARA and AAR Freight Claims Division monitored livestock losses and damage and issued bulletins on a regular basis covering the greatest causes of such losses. The overiding events leading to losses were; over-crowding of cars, fighting of animals, loose bulls in cars, hogs or sheep piling account wet or cold weather, and the faulty, defective or improperly applied partitions. The only references to cleaning of freight cars is for box and reefers used for clean lading. I did find one statement (circa 1933); "...concerning proper cleaning and bedding of cars; secure footing is very important under high speed transportation." That particular report also lists losses for the year 1932; for cattle one animal per 3,560 shipped was found dead in transit.
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