Date   

Re: Beer Traffic

ljack70117@...
 

On Friday, July 29, 2005, at 01:53 AM, Justin Kahn wrote:


In 1950 (and earlier), the consolidation of breweries into a few major
corporations was still not far along, and most beer was produced and sold in
a relatively circumscribed area, so long-distance shipping was limited to a
few large firms such as Schlitz and Miller and Busch. Before national
advertising--particularly through television--many local or regional brands
had strong loyalties which would have made it difficult for the bigger
brewers to compete on price after the cost of shipping.
I would speculate, given the time-frame (and the shipments to Newport News),
that much of the canned beer (and beer in cans was still uncommon in 1950,
although, again, shipping over long distances required more substantial
packaging than the usual glass bottles sold in stores and bars) was going to
the military overseas.
Jace Kahn, General Manager
Ceres and Canisteo RR Co.
I worked for a beer distributer in 1954 in Hutchinson Ks. We had Geitz (Country Club) from St Joe MO. Papst (sp) blue ribbon from Milwaukee Wi and A local that I forget the name. The Blue ribbon came by rail and the other two by truck. We had to keep the blue ribbon package beer in the cooler because it came in a reefer with kegs that were iced. Keg beer is not pasteurized and must be kept cold or it would go flat. And once you cool packaged beer it must be kept cold or it would go flat on warming up. There was as much beer in cans in 1954 as there was in bottles. We sold more flats than any other size cases. Case sizes were Bottle pints 12 to a case. Flats of 24 pint cans. Doubles of eight six packs pints. Case of eight six packs full pints cans. Case of 24 quart cans or bottles.
Pint cans and bottles are a short pint of 12 oz. A full pint is 16 oz. A keg is 32.5 gal which is a half barrel of beer.
Thank you
Larry Jackman
ljack70117@adelphia.net
Shin: A device for finding furniture in the dark.


Re: P&LE open hoppers

benjaminfrank_hom <b.hom@...>
 

Larry Kline wrote:
"Terry Link's web site (frequently referenced here by Ben Hom) has a
very useful table listing NYC system freight cars including P&LE and
PMcK&Y.
See: http://www.canadasouthern.com/caso/NYC-MODELS-FREIGHT.htm

The lot number in the first column of the table is a link to a diagram
that illustrates the car type."

One trick to quickly match up ORER car series with lot numbers is using
your browser's find feature (Ctrl-F) and search using the first umber
in the car series.


Ben Hom


Re: DL&W Perishable Traffic

Tim Gilbert <tgilbert@...>
 

Justin Kahn wrote:

Another case where I can't say I KNOW something to be so, but logic suggests that the DL&W terminating in NYC, a major market for any kind of food, was part of it. Off the top of my head, I think it was the NKP that routed most of its midwestern priority traffic to the DL&W at Buffalo (Erie would have been a competitor from Chicago to NYC, and probably also carried substantial amounts of fresh fruit).
As to lighter loads, fruit such as peaches bruises easily, which results in premature rotting, so more care is required in both loading and transferring them, probably in crates (smaller quantities, as at roadside stands, used to be sold in bushel baskets), rather than in bulk.
Jace,

The ERIE was the main reefer route to New York & Boston for produce. A good description of their role in the moving of perishables is in Kip Farrington's RAILROADING FROM THE REAR END (1946) which was essentially a reprint of an ERIE PR release. In both Thompson et al.'s PFE and Jordan, Hendrickson et al.'s SANTA FE REFRIGERATOR CARS, there are photos of ERIE car floats crossing the Hudson - no such photos of DL&W floats. According to Jordan, Hendrickson et al., Pittsburgh-Philadelphia was, by default, a Pennsy Reefer route with Washington being served by the B&O.

Many of the Meat Reefers to New York arrived via NYC's West Side Line because of that line's direct access to Cold Storage Houses in Manhattan - the NYC did not have access to many Manhattan produce markets until the 1960's when many of those markets were moved to the Bronx.

The NKP may have gotten some business, but they probably turned it over to the ERIE. So far as I know, the DL&W did not have much, if any, of a produce market in Manhattan.

Tim Gilbert


SR early wood racks

Jim King <jimking3@...>
 

Hi all,

I was researching my Southern ORER copies last night trying to make
sense of the years of service for my upcoming O scale 41' flat and
composite gon. I've always known that the flats were also the basis for
the slatted-end wood racks but, until last night, I never paid any
attention to their service life. Well, what a shock!

In 1928, Lenoir Car Works built 500 of the composite gons using the same
style flat car frame as the 41' flat that SR built in 1926. Sometime
between 7/32 and 4/42 (I don't have ORERs between those years), the 499
comp gons in service at the time were split into 3 groups: 100 were
converted back to flats, 171 remained as gons and 223 were converted to
wood racks. It's likely a couple more than the 171 and 223 were
actually built but that's close to the max.

By 1/53, there were still 85 flats, 137 gons and 216 racks. These
numbers dropped significantly by the 1/57 ORER: 32 flats, 28 gons and 8
wood racks.

It appears that the steel low side gons and wood racks were coming into
service in large numbers and the above composite cars were retired en
masse. What's interesting is that as late as 4/72, 15 flats, 1 gon and
5 racks were still rostered. This is confirmed by the 1972 SR freight
car diagram book where is specifically states that the gons no longer
had sides and were converted back to flats. 4 wood racks were still on
the roster in 11/73 . but's doubtful any really saw service because of
age.

I mention all of this because I'm looking for customer interest in
seeing a re-made HO flat and composite gon and a new wood rack. I
offered the composite gon about 18-24 months ago and they were poor
sellers due, apparently, to folks thinking the cars were too old for
most operating eras. I never pursued the wood rack because of lack of
dealer interest at the time. The only way I can produce an HO wood rack
is to also offer the flat (not the same as Red Caboose's) as the base
kit. I would consider re-making the comp gon as a 1-pc body (including
side boards and end boards) with a separate underframe and weight if
there is sufficient interest.

For O scalers, the flat and gon patterns are done and pilot models
should be complete late next week. Is there interest in an O scale wood
rack?

Please reply on or off list with your interests.

Jim King
Smoky Mountain Model Works, Inc.
http://www.smokymountainmodelworks.com/


Re: Hemp growing was Asparagus and Peaches in SC

Fred in Vt. <pennsy@...>
 

Bob,

An unnamed friend works for an "official agency" in Alexandria Va. that monitors visitors to such websites. Thought you might want a heads up on the project.

Fred F

----- Original Message -----
From: Bob Webber
To: STMFC@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Friday, July 29, 2005 10:06 AM
Subject: [STMFC] Hemp growing was Asparagus and Peaches in SC


Actually, one of the larger crops in NW & West Central Illinois in
the war years (WWII) was hemp for making rope. Not sure how the
product was shipped in cars, but it was shipped by rail. If you
happen to be railfanning today and are observant, you can see "wild"
hemp that escaped the fields into ditches and such and now are part
of the weed makeup - which is somewhat ironic given the more refined
version's nickname. Not sure what would happen now if you happened
to pick some (for rope making of course).

I would like to know how it was transported - I suspect it was baled
and, not unlike cotton, shipped that way. I'll have to google it and
check it out.

At 02:58 AM 7/29/2005, you wrote:
> From: Eric
>Subject: Re: Asparagus and Peaches in SC
> Along with the interesting factoid that hemp was grown in the
> Yucatan and was
>used for making rope.

Bob Webber




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Re: Hemp growing was Asparagus and Peaches in SC

Tim O'Connor
 

Bob,

The important part was removing all the sticks and stems. :-)
Bongification, I think it was called... The bales could be quite
small, the smallest being known by its packaging as a "nickel
bag".

Tim "The Left Hempisphere" O'Connor

I would like to know how it was transported - I suspect it was baled
and, not unlike cotton, shipped that way.


Re: P&LE open hoppers

Fred in Vt. <pennsy@...>
 

Larry,

Thank you for the info, I'll dive into the web link after lunch. Really enjoy those days when I learn something new!!!

Fred F

----- Original Message -----
From: Larry Kline
To: STMFC list
Sent: Friday, July 29, 2005 9:37 AM
Subject: [STMFC] Re: P&LE open hoppers


Fred Freitas asked:
While I have the 1953 ORER, I'm having difficulty figuring out what
type hoppers were in the P&LE fleet for this time period. Does
anyone know of a reference book that has pix of the various types; ie:
twin ribbed / off set >>> triple ribbed / off set ? TIA

Terry Link's web site (frequently referenced here by Ben Hom) has a
very useful table listing NYC system freight cars including P&LE and
PMcK&Y.
See: http://www.canadasouthern.com/caso/NYC-MODELS-FREIGHT.htm

The lot number in the first column of the table is a link to a diagram
that illustrates the car type. Note that the diagrams for early triple
hoppers show a shallow double door center hopper. Most or all of these
cars were rebuilt as conventional triple hoppers by 1953.

Larry Kline
Pittsburgh, PA



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Re: TP&W fans

Fred in Vt. <pennsy@...>
 

Ray,

Thanks for the post, it gives me a better idea of how things were handled. There is no time limit on this project, as I am about a year ahead in my planning phase. Would definitely appreciate it if you would post back when you are settled n the new residence. Please tell me it has a HUGE basement!!!!

Fred Freitas

----- Original Message -----
From: Ray Breyer
To: STMFC@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Friday, July 29, 2005 8:54 AM
Subject: Re: [STMFC] TP&W fans


Not much concrete help for you Fred, but Paul
Stringham's TP&W book does hint at this sort of
traffic routing. Unfortunately, I'm in the middle of a
move, so can't check my stacks of TP&W form 19's, nor
the Stringham book to give you any better details.

FWIW, it appears that the TP had a pretty good overall
relationship with the Santa Fe during the 1940s-1950s.
According to my 1950 TP&W General Orders book, the TP
rerouted over the ATSF a few times (via the NKP from
Farmdale to Crandall, and from Crandall to East
Peoria) for various washouts and track work projects
(which were eliminated by the Farmdale flyover in
July, 1950).

Speaking of Peoria area reefer traffic, it looks like
both the TP and ATSF partnered up with the NKP for
most of their routings. The TP sent out one to two
transfer runs between the East Peoria yard and the NKP
interchange at Farmdale (before 7/50), and most
Stringham photos of these consists show solid blocks
of reefers. Likewise, the ATSF handed off a lot of
traffic to the NKP at Crandall to be routed to the TP
and on west (sorta strange, but that's what happened).
The M&StL preferred routing their reefer traffic over
the P&E. And most strangely of all, while the P&E
handled most of the distillery switching in East
Peoria, most of those cars were routed straight to the
P&PU to be handed to the NKP.

Once things settle down with my move (give or take a
month or two), I'll start digging through my TO's to
see if I can find you some better data.

Ray Breyer

--- Fred Freitas <pennsy@sover.net> wrote:

> List,
>
> Is there any info for the TP&W picking up cars
> from the AT&SF at
> Iowa Jct. and expiditing them to Logansport Ind.?
> In particular the
> haul of reefers to avoid delays at Chicago.
> Strickly an eastward
> movement question. Thanks
>
> Fred Freitas
>
>
>
>
>
> Yahoo! Groups Links
>
>
> STMFC-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
>
>
>
>
>


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Hemp growing was Asparagus and Peaches in SC

Bob Webber <no17@...>
 

Actually, one of the larger crops in NW & West Central Illinois in the war years (WWII) was hemp for making rope. Not sure how the product was shipped in cars, but it was shipped by rail. If you happen to be railfanning today and are observant, you can see "wild" hemp that escaped the fields into ditches and such and now are part of the weed makeup - which is somewhat ironic given the more refined version's nickname. Not sure what would happen now if you happened to pick some (for rope making of course).

I would like to know how it was transported - I suspect it was baled and, not unlike cotton, shipped that way. I'll have to google it and check it out.

At 02:58 AM 7/29/2005, you wrote:
From: Eric
Subject: Re: Asparagus and Peaches in SC
Along with the interesting factoid that hemp was grown in the Yucatan and was
used for making rope.
Bob Webber


Re: P&LE open hoppers

Angela Sutton
 

Fred and list,
While not pictures, there is a New York Central
diagram book fr 1951 available at the fallen flags
website:

http://www.rr-fallenflags.org/nyc/nyc-frt.html

Scroll down below the pictures to find it. Using the
roster numbers, the front sheets will direct you to
the lot number and the appropriate diagram. Very
useful!!

Enjoy,

Angela


Re: P&LE open hoppers

Larry Kline
 

Fred Freitas asked:
While I have the 1953 ORER, I'm having difficulty figuring out what type hoppers were in the P&LE fleet for this time period. Does
anyone know of a reference book that has pix of the various types; ie: twin ribbed / off set >>> triple ribbed / off set ? TIA

Terry Link's web site (frequently referenced here by Ben Hom) has a very useful table listing NYC system freight cars including P&LE and PMcK&Y.
See: http://www.canadasouthern.com/caso/NYC-MODELS-FREIGHT.htm

The lot number in the first column of the table is a link to a diagram that illustrates the car type. Note that the diagrams for early triple hoppers show a shallow double door center hopper. Most or all of these cars were rebuilt as conventional triple hoppers by 1953.

Larry Kline
Pittsburgh, PA


Re: Cal-Scale Express Reefer Underframe Detail Kit

Ben Brown
 

--- In STMFC@yahoogroups.com, "Andy Sperandeo" <asperandeo@m...> wrote:
Hello Ben,

You can view and print the Cal-Scale drawing from the Bowser Web
site at www.bowser-trains.com.

So long,

Andy
Thanks to Andy, Mike, Andrew and Bruce for such quick replies. What I
am really looking for is definitive underframe photos or plans that
show the arrangement of brake, steam, and signal equipment under 50'
wood General American built express or milk cars. I have spent time on
my back photographing the undersides of both MDT and G-A steel cars
and have satisfied myself with those, but the more prevalent earlier
wood car has eluded me. The old Cal-Scale kit is the closest I could
recall. Actually, it is the back of the instruction sheet that has
more of what I am after and Bowser does not show that portion on the
web site. A friend who does model underframes has offered to send me a
copy by mail. I model in O Scale and it turns out to be very important
to make sure everything is in its proper place because one can readily
see under the models. There is a whole lot more there than the average
AB brake system under a boxcar.
Regards,
Ben Brown


Re: TP&W fans

Ray Breyer
 

Not much concrete help for you Fred, but Paul
Stringham's TP&W book does hint at this sort of
traffic routing. Unfortunately, I'm in the middle of a
move, so can't check my stacks of TP&W form 19's, nor
the Stringham book to give you any better details.

FWIW, it appears that the TP had a pretty good overall
relationship with the Santa Fe during the 1940s-1950s.
According to my 1950 TP&W General Orders book, the TP
rerouted over the ATSF a few times (via the NKP from
Farmdale to Crandall, and from Crandall to East
Peoria) for various washouts and track work projects
(which were eliminated by the Farmdale flyover in
July, 1950).

Speaking of Peoria area reefer traffic, it looks like
both the TP and ATSF partnered up with the NKP for
most of their routings. The TP sent out one to two
transfer runs between the East Peoria yard and the NKP
interchange at Farmdale (before 7/50), and most
Stringham photos of these consists show solid blocks
of reefers. Likewise, the ATSF handed off a lot of
traffic to the NKP at Crandall to be routed to the TP
and on west (sorta strange, but that's what happened).
The M&StL preferred routing their reefer traffic over
the P&E. And most strangely of all, while the P&E
handled most of the distillery switching in East
Peoria, most of those cars were routed straight to the
P&PU to be handed to the NKP.

Once things settle down with my move (give or take a
month or two), I'll start digging through my TO's to
see if I can find you some better data.

Ray Breyer

--- Fred Freitas <pennsy@sover.net> wrote:

List,

Is there any info for the TP&W picking up cars
from the AT&SF at
Iowa Jct. and expiditing them to Logansport Ind.?
In particular the
haul of reefers to avoid delays at Chicago.
Strickly an eastward
movement question. Thanks

Fred Freitas





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Re: Beer Traffic

Justin Kahn
 

In 1950 (and earlier), the consolidation of breweries into a few major corporations was still not far along, and most beer was produced and sold in a relatively circumscribed area, so long-distance shipping was limited to a few large firms such as Schlitz and Miller and Busch. Before national advertising--particularly through television--many local or regional brands had strong loyalties which would have made it difficult for the bigger brewers to compete on price after the cost of shipping.
I would speculate, given the time-frame (and the shipments to Newport News), that much of the canned beer (and beer in cans was still uncommon in 1950, although, again, shipping over long distances required more substantial packaging than the usual glass bottles sold in stores and bars) was going to the military overseas.
Jace Kahn, General Manager
Ceres and Canisteo RR Co.


buchwaldfam wrote:

Since beer was quite often shipped in insulated box cars, does this
imply that I can run PFE reefers loaded FROM the Schlitz brewery? I
have a picture of a Manufacturers Railway insulated box car on the
lead at Schlitz around 1950. That one really surprised me since
Manufacturers was the Anhauser Busch road.
Five of the 64 westbound loaded PFE reefers in the UP Conductor's Fraley
Fall 1947 were loaded with beer. No idea who the brewer was.

There was one westbound SLRX beer load reported, but no MRS boxcars.

Tim Gilbert
_________________________________________________________________
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Re: DL&W Perishable Traffic

Justin Kahn
 

Another case where I can't say I KNOW something to be so, but logic suggests that the DL&W terminating in NYC, a major market for any kind of food, was part of it. Off the top of my head, I think it was the NKP that routed most of its midwestern priority traffic to the DL&W at Buffalo (Erie would have been a competitor from Chicago to NYC, and probably also carried substantial amounts of fresh fruit).
As to lighter loads, fruit such as peaches bruises easily, which results in premature rotting, so more care is required in both loading and transferring them, probably in crates (smaller quantities, as at roadside stands, used to be sold in bushel baskets), rather than in bulk.

Jace Kahn, General Manager
Ceres and Canisteo RR Co.




My 1950 ICC Revenue Freight Report for the DL&W showed that the DL&W alone
carried 1,240 tons of Peaches, fresh, not frozen in 103 carloads, or 12 tons
per car. No tons were originated on the DL&W, and 9 carloads terminated on
line. The rest were delivered to connecting roads.

It would be interesting to learn why one third of the US peach traffic
passed through the hands of the Lackawanna that year.

Incidentally, looking at other produce entries in the ICC report, it appears
that many of the agricultural commodities were carried in lots around 10-15
tons in size. Even allowing for full ice bunkers, that seems like a light
load.

Michael Mang
_________________________________________________________________
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TP&W fans

Fred Freitas <pennsy@...>
 

List,

Is there any info for the TP&W picking up cars from the AT&SF at
Iowa Jct. and expiditing them to Logansport Ind.? In particular the
haul of reefers to avoid delays at Chicago. Strickly an eastward
movement question. Thanks

Fred Freitas


P&LE open hoppers

Fred Freitas <pennsy@...>
 

Group,

While I have the 1953 ORER, I'm having difficulty figuring out
what type hoppers were in the P&LE fleet for this time period. Does
anyone know of a reference book that has pix of the various types; ie:
twin ribbed / off set >>> triple ribbed / off set ? TIA

Fred Freitas


Re: Asparagus and Peaches in SC

Eric
 

Tom Madden wrote:

Also Long Island. I can remember them in the 1970s. Particularly, potatoes. They actually grew
peaches there too. My godfather used to work for NYS DOT and drove all around the island. He'd come
and drop off a basket or two of them in the late summer.

Eric Petersson


"They were called "truck farms", and there were quite a few in
northern & central New Jersey as well. Learned about them in
geography class in school back in the '40s and the term must have
made quite an impression on me as I still remember it. Along with
the interesting factoid that hemp was grown in the Yucatan and was
used for making rope.

All manner of fruits and (especially) vegetables was grown in New
Jersey truck farms, and in season there would be daily deliveries of
fresh produce to markets in nearby metropolitan areas. There were
(and still are) many roadside stands where motorists could purchase
directly from the growers. Our occasional driving trips to New York
City on Route 46 back then took us through some truck farming areas,
and I don't recall any facilities on the DL&W's old main line
through that same area, other than team tracks at Oxford and
Columbia, for handling such small-lot traffic. The idea of truck
farms was to be close enough to your market to get produce from
field to fork in just a few hours."

________________________________________________
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Re: Asparagus and Peaches in SC

Fred in Vt. <pennsy@...>
 

Tim,

I'll dig into the Keystones to look for the specific article & post back what I find.
The 2nd part is a question in as much as it appears from the thread that shipments originated on several east cost lines to major cities. The only one I'm sure of is the PRR, and their use of express hauling to market cities. Would it follow that perishables were expidited;in so far as originating road? On the PRR, they originated & delivered to final destinations; not the case where cars were interchanged by other roads.
Not being a proficient student of RR's south of DC, it becomes a question as to what & how from Fla. up the coast.

Fred Freitas

----- Original Message -----
From: Tim Gilbert
To: STMFC@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Thursday, July 28, 2005 3:34 PM
Subject: Re: [STMFC] Re: Asparagus and Peaches in SC


Fred in Vt. wrote:

> Tim & Tom,
>
> The PRR Society's Keystone had an article abot the NJ peach
> crop, and the express service trains that hauled them to NYC &
> Phila.. Back about 4 years, IIRC.
> Would no doubt be safe in thinking that any seasonal
> consumable would have a schedule on most east coast RR's; be it
> reefer, ventilated, or insulated car.

1) When were these express service trains operated? Before or after trucks?
2) Express Service was not considered to be part of the Freight
Commodity Statistics.
3) Is the last sentence a question? Or a statement? Are you referring to
originating, through or terminating service?

Tim Gilbert



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Re: Stirrup steps for LNE hopper

Greg Bartek
 

Mark,

LC&N Panther Creek hoppers, 85 in total(LCNX #3001-3085),which had a
build date of 1909-1910, were transferred to the L&NE. For some
unknown reason, 12 cars were not transferred. The remaining hoppers
were renumbered #4101-4173 for teh L&NE. According to my info, these
were grouped with other L&NE hoppers in the #3001-4723 series. All
were gone from the roster by the end of 1950. How long the 4101-4173
cars lasted, I am not sure.

Regards,
Greg Bartek

--- In STMFC@yahoogroups.com, "Mark Heiden" <mark_heiden@h...> wrote:
Hi Greg,

Thanks for the information. I'm planning on using Tichy 3045
stirrups on my model. I think they might be a little long, but
they
have the right look.

Maybe you could help me out on one more LNE matter. Before the
Tamaqua Extension was finished in 1912, Lehigh Coal & Navigation
bought 50 twin-bay, ribside hoppers lettered for Panther Creek.
Did
these cars make into the LNE roster, and do you know the number
series and how long they were on the roster?

Thanks,
Mark Heiden

--- In STMFC@yahoogroups.com, "gsb157" <sgaab@p...> wrote:
Not often I see a post on my favorite RR. For reference, I have
the
Train Shed Cyclopedia No.5 that contains the data from the 1940
Car
Builders Cyclopedia.

The photo in the book is fairly clear with details. The car
listed,
13283, was part of the 100 car order built by Bethlehem Steel Co.
in
1939 covering numbers 13251-13350. The numbers 13001-13250 were
from
a 1936 order from the same company. The dimensions should be
identical though the capacity for the 1936 order is listed as
2100
cu. ft. while the 1939 100 car order lists capacity at 2062 as is
reported in the cyclopedia.

Concerning the stirrups, the photo shows that both sides of the
car
as-built look to have identical stirrups. Their shape is straight
and
rectangular, no sign of any angle and canted slightly outward as
you
describe. It is totally different from the type of stirrup on the
Atlas 2 bay offset hopper.

I have no information, photographic or otherwise, that would
verify
if and when any rebuilds changed these in the 40's. If I had to
give
an educated guess, being that the LNE was fairly frugal
concerning
their rolling stock, I could not see them changing the style of
the
stirrup early on except maybe in the case of collision damage.
I'd
change the Atlas model to reflect an as-delivered style.

Hope this helps.
Regards,
Greg Bartek


--- In STMFC@yahoogroups.com, "Mark Heiden" <mark_heiden@h...>
wrote:
Hello everyone,

I'm trying to determine the proper stirrup steps for a Lehigh &
New
England twin bay, offset-side hopper. The car in question is
from
series 13001-13350, delivered in 1939. There is a grainy
builder's
photo from the 1940 Cyclopedia available on the pay side of the
NEB&W website at:

http://railroad.union.rpi.edu/rolling-stock/Hoppers/LNE-offset-
hm-
centered-logo-40-cyc.jpg

The vertical "legs" of stirrups appear to be straight and
canted
slightly outwards, with two horizontal steps. However, later
photos
of these cars from the 1960s show one "leg" offset towards the
center of the car, with two horizontal steps, like those that
come
with the Atlas hopper. Were these cars delivered with one
style
of
steps, and then acquired another through rebuilds and repairs?
What
would be correct for a car in the late 1940s?

Thanks,
Mark Heiden

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