: Weathering freight cars


Bruce Smith
 

Gene,

Um yes, it certainly works to fade paint, if you have the time (several years at least to get a noticable fade). However, there are lots of other issues.

1) Today's model paint and yesteryear's prototype paints are very different beasts, so don't expect them to fade in the same direction as each other.
2) You have to expose all sides to the sun...
3) Weathering effects due to other things (rain, particulates, etc...) are not to scale and may look odd at best
4) The substrate of the model is very different from the prototype car and therefore the overall effect would likely not be the same at all. After all, on that plastic car, the rivets won't start rusting through the paint, now will they <G>?
5) Prototype cars were exposed to motion as well as different environments. A stationary model would not have these effects either.


Regards

Bruce


Bruce F. Smith

Auburn, AL

https://www5.vetmed.auburn.edu/~smithbf/


"Some days you are the bug, some days you are the windshield."

__

/ &#92;

__<+--+>________________&#92;__/___ ________________________________

|- ______/ O O &#92;_______ -| | __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ |

| / 4999 PENNSYLVANIA 4999 &#92; | ||__||__||__||__||__||__||__||__||

|/_____________________________&#92;|_|________________________________|

| O--O &#92;0 0 0 0/ O--O | 0-0-0 0-0-0

On Jun 12, 2013, at 12:55 PM, Gene wrote:

My son (who models the DM&IR but I love him anyway) is considering testing whether leaving freight cars out in the sun will "weather" them. Has anyone tried this?
Gene Green


Armand Premo
 

For what it's worth,I believe the most grievous error a modeler can make is to over do weathering.My taste lean more to subtle weathering.An overly weathered car will stand out as much as a brightly colored car.Visitors will remember it.A technique that I favor is to star with the basic color and go from there.Others might favor mixing a diluted tone.I do not profess to be an expert on weathering ,but feel strongly that it is a matter of individual taste.After all it is Your model and as long as you are satisfied with it that's really all that matters.Armand Premo

----- Original Message -----
From: Bruce F. Smith
To: <STMFC@yahoogroups.com>
Sent: Wednesday, June 12, 2013 2:08 PM
Subject: Re::[STMFC] Weathering freight cars



Gene,

Um yes, it certainly works to fade paint, if you have the time (several years at least to get a noticable fade). However, there are lots of other issues.

1) Today's model paint and yesteryear's prototype paints are very different beasts, so don't expect them to fade in the same direction as each other.
2) You have to expose all sides to the sun...
3) Weathering effects due to other things (rain, particulates, etc...) are not to scale and may look odd at best
4) The substrate of the model is very different from the prototype car and therefore the overall effect would likely not be the same at all. After all, on that plastic car, the rivets won't start rusting through the paint, now will they <G>?
5) Prototype cars were exposed to motion as well as different environments. A stationary model would not have these effects either.

Regards

Bruce

Bruce F. Smith

Auburn, AL

https://www5.vetmed.auburn.edu/~smithbf/

"Some days you are the bug, some days you are the windshield."

__

/ &#92;

__<+--+>________________&#92;__/___ ________________________________

|- ______/ O O &#92;_______ -| | __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ |

| / 4999 PENNSYLVANIA 4999 &#92; | ||__||__||__||__||__||__||__||__||

|/_____________________________&#92;|_|________________________________|

| O--O &#92;0 0 0 0/ O--O | 0-0-0 0-0-0

On Jun 12, 2013, at 12:55 PM, Gene wrote:

My son (who models the DM&IR but I love him anyway) is considering testing whether leaving freight cars out in the sun will "weather" them. Has anyone tried this?
Gene Green


Tony Thompson
 

Armand Premo wrote:
For what it's worth,I believe the most grievous error a modeler can make is to over do weathering.My taste lean more to subtle weathering.An overly weathered car will stand out as much as a brightly colored car.Visitors will remember it.A technique that I favor is to star with the basic color and go from there.Others might favor mixing a diluted tone.I do not profess to be an expert on weathering ,but feel strongly that it is a matter of individual taste.After all it is Your model and as long as you are satisfied with it that's really all that matters.

Richard Hendrickson may chime in here, as he believes, on considerable photographic evidence, that it is difficult to over-weather steam era freight cars. But I would disagree with the idea that as long as YOU like it, it's okay. Um, no. On this topic I like to quote Tony Koester's comment, that if you are really interested in model RAILROADING, you try to duplicate aspects of real world railroads. (Otherwise you are just having fun with train models.) Certainly an entire steam-era freight car fleet which is uniformly and lightly weathered cannot be said to duplicate reality.
As Armand says, it's true that ONE severely weathered car will stand out among lightly weathered or unweathered ones. I believe that instead, there should be a gradation, from almost new cars to ones on which it is hard to read the lettering, with a range of cars weathered everywhere in between.
Of course I agree with Armand that weathering, like so much else, is a matter of individual taste, and that we all satisfy primarily ourselves, at the end of the day. But to me, that does NOT mean that whatever you choose to do is equally realistic.

Tony Thompson Editor, Signature Press, Berkeley, CA
2906 Forest Ave., Berkeley, CA 94705 www.signaturepress.com
(510) 540-6538; fax, (510) 540-1937; e-mail, tony@signaturepress.com
Publishers of books on railroad history


Armand Premo
 

Not to belabor the point ,the key phrase is that you are satisfied.Most of us do not have access to photos of every car we build.First hand information of steam era freight cars appear in various publications but this not readily available to all.As said, I_ prefer subtle weathering as opposed to heavy weathering.Do I have any heavily weathered cars?I do,however they represent a small percentage of my roster as do unweathered or like new cars.Armand Premo

----- Original Message -----
From: Tony Thompson
To: STMFC@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Wednesday, June 12, 2013 5:16 PM
Subject: Re: :[STMFC] Weathering freight cars



Armand Premo wrote:
> For what it's worth,I believe the most grievous error a modeler can make is to over do weathering.My taste lean more to subtle weathering.An overly weathered car will stand out as much as a brightly colored car.Visitors will remember it.A technique that I favor is to star with the basic color and go from there.Others might favor mixing a diluted tone.I do not profess to be an expert on weathering ,but feel strongly that it is a matter of individual taste.After all it is Your model and as long as you are satisfied with it that's really all that matters.
>

Richard Hendrickson may chime in here, as he believes, on considerable photographic evidence, that it is difficult to over-weather steam era freight cars. But I would disagree with the idea that as long as YOU like it, it's okay. Um, no. On this topic I like to quote Tony Koester's comment, that if you are really interested in model RAILROADING, you try to duplicate aspects of real world railroads. (Otherwise you are just having fun with train models.) Certainly an entire steam-era freight car fleet which is uniformly and lightly weathered cannot be said to duplicate reality.
As Armand says, it's true that ONE severely weathered car will stand out among lightly weathered or unweathered ones. I believe that instead, there should be a gradation, from almost new cars to ones on which it is hard to read the lettering, with a range of cars weathered everywhere in between.
Of course I agree with Armand that weathering, like so much else, is a matter of individual taste, and that we all satisfy primarily ourselves, at the end of the day. But to me, that does NOT mean that whatever you choose to do is equally realistic.

Tony Thompson Editor, Signature Press, Berkeley, CA
2906 Forest Ave., Berkeley, CA 94705 www.signaturepress.com
(510) 540-6538; fax, (510) 540-1937; e-mail, tony@signaturepress.com
Publishers of books on railroad history


Douglas Harding
 

Gene, I'm not sure your son will get the results he seeks. Winter's north of
Duluth are far different from your location in Belen NM. Not near as much
sun fade in Duluth either.



Doug Harding

www.iowacentralrr.org


Richard Hendrickson
 

On Jun 12, 2013, at 2:16 PM, Tony Thompson <tony@signaturepress.com> wrote:

Armand Premo wrote:
For what it's worth,I believe the most grievous error a modeler can make is to over do weathering.My taste lean more to subtle weathering.An overly weathered car will stand out as much as a brightly colored car.Visitors will remember it.A technique that I favor is to star with the basic color and go from there.Others might favor mixing a diluted tone.I do not profess to be an expert on weathering ,but feel strongly that it is a matter of individual taste.After all it is Your model and as long as you are satisfied with it that's really all that matters.
Richard Hendrickson may chime in here, as he believes, on considerable photographic evidence, that it is difficult to over-weather steam era freight cars. But I would disagree with the idea that as long as YOU like it, it's okay. Um, no. On this topic I like to quote Tony Koester's comment, that if you are really interested in model RAILROADING, you try to duplicate aspects of real world railroads. (Otherwise you are just having fun with train models.) Certainly an entire steam-era freight car fleet which is uniformly and lightly weathered cannot be said to duplicate reality.
As Armand says, it's true that ONE severely weathered car will stand out among lightly weathered or unweathered ones. I believe that instead, there should be a gradation, from almost new cars to ones on which it is hard to read the lettering, with a range of cars weathered everywhere in between.
Of course I agree with Armand that weathering, like so much else, is a matter of individual taste, and that we all satisfy primarily ourselves, at the end of the day. But to me, that does NOT mean that whatever you choose to do is equally realistic.
No argument that Armand (and others) are entitled to please themselves in this regard. That is, as long as they don't claim to be prototype modelers.

As Tony aptly says, "an entire steam-era freight car fleet which is uniformly and lightly weathered cannot be said to duplicate reality."

There is abundant photographic evidence that (1) steam era freight cars were dirty and weathered roughly proportional to how long it had been since they were repainted, (2) repainting was infrequent - seldom more than every ten years or so and often much longer than that, and (3) cars that had not been repainted for a long time were seriously faded and filthy owing not only to weathering but to the grime continually deposited on them from steam locomotive stacks and the mills and factories adjacent to rail lines and freight yards. I think only those who experienced it first hand can imagine how dirty railroads were in the '30s-'40s-early '50s. Heavy weathering on at least some cars is far from "a grievous error," as Armand claims; in fact it's an essential element of realism. Sorry, but this fact is so well documented that it simply is not open to discussion.

Richard Hendrickson


Jack Burgess
 

Richard mentioned
<There is abundant photographic evidence that (1) steam era freight cars
<were dirty and weathered roughly proportional to how long it had been
<since they were repainted, (2) repainting was infrequent - seldom more
<than every ten years or so and often much longer than that, and (3) cars
<that had not been repainted for a long time were seriously faded and
<filthy owing not only to weathering but to the grime continually
<deposited on them from steam locomotive stacks and the mills and
<factories adjacent to rail lines and freight yards. I think only those
<who experienced it first hand can imagine how dirty railroads were in
<the '30s-'40s-early '50s. Heavy weathering on at least some cars is far
<from "a grievous error," as Armand claims; in fact it's an essential
<element of realism. Sorry, but this fact is so well documented that it
<simply is not open to discussion.
<
<Richard Hendrickson

I seem to recall that you previously stated the same general idea during a
clinic I attended but qualified it to the demands on the railroad industry
by WWII which makes sense. But I model 1939 and the few color photos that I
have of mixed trains (circa 1943) don't show heavy weathering. It is
important to note that foreign freight cars on the YV tended to be western
roads...SP, ATSF, GN, NP, etc. So, was this heavy weathering a more
pronounced with eastern roads (likely in my mind) and also more pronounced
as the war dragged on for a couple more years?

Jack Burgess


tbarney2004
 

On 6/12/2013 8:59 PM, Jack Burgess wrote:
Richard mentioned
<There is abundant photographic evidence that (1) steam era freight cars
<were dirty and weathered roughly proportional to how long it had been
<since they were repainted, (2) repainting was infrequent - seldom more
<than every ten years or so and often much longer than that, and (3) cars
<that had not been repainted for a long time were seriously faded and
<filthy owing not only to weathering but to the grime continually
<deposited on them from steam locomotive stacks and the mills and
<factories adjacent to rail lines and freight yards. I think only those
<who experienced it first hand can imagine how dirty railroads were in
<the '30s-'40s-early '50s. Heavy weathering on at least some cars is far
<from "a grievous error," as Armand claims; in fact it's an essential
<element of realism. Sorry, but this fact is so well documented that it
<simply is not open to discussion.
<
<Richard Hendrickson

I seem to recall that you previously stated the same general idea during a
clinic I attended but qualified it to the demands on the railroad industry
by WWII which makes sense. But I model 1939 and the few color photos that I
have of mixed trains (circa 1943) don't show heavy weathering. It is
important to note that foreign freight cars on the YV tended to be western
roads...SP, ATSF, GN, NP, etc. So, was this heavy weathering a more
pronounced with eastern roads (likely in my mind) and also more pronounced
as the war dragged on for a couple more years?

Jack Burgess
I've seen many winter-time pictures of my hometown, Altoona, where the snow between the tracks and near the rail lines was so dirty and black that you could barely tell that there WAS snow on the ground, so it really wouldn't surprise me. Also, the house I grew up in as a kid in the 70s and 80s contained, in the garage out back as part of it's construction, boards from old box cars that probably easily would have dated to the 30s and 40s that had so much dirt and grime on them from the years, that we never knew they were in there until we had torn down the garage and were dismantling the framing.

Tim Barney


Jon Miller <atsf@...>
 

On 6/12/2013 5:14 PM, Richard Hendrickson wrote:
who experienced it first hand can imagine how dirty railroads were in the '30s-'40s-early '50s
While I am slightly younger than the era I model I do remember
that, in the small town I was born in, wash was only done onthe days the
peddlerfreight didn't go through town. This was so the sheets didn't
come in black and we lived at least a couple of blocks from the rails.

--
Jon Miller
For me time stopped in 1941
Digitrax--Chief/Zephyr systems, JMRI User
NMRA Life member #2623
Member SFRH&MS


Richard Hendrickson
 

On Jun 12, 2013, at 5:59 PM, Jack Burgess <jack@yosemitevalleyrr.com> wrote:

Richard mentioned
<There is abundant photographic evidence that (1) steam era freight cars
<were dirty and weathered roughly proportional to how long it had been
<since they were repainted, (2) repainting was infrequent - seldom more
<than every ten years or so and often much longer than that, and (3) cars
<that had not been repainted for a long time were seriously faded and
<filthy owing not only to weathering but to the grime continually
<deposited on them from steam locomotive stacks and the mills and
<factories adjacent to rail lines and freight yards. I think only those
<who experienced it first hand can imagine how dirty railroads were in
<the '30s-'40s-early '50s. Heavy weathering on at least some cars is far
<from "a grievous error," as Armand claims; in fact it's an essential
<element of realism. Sorry, but this fact is so well documented that it
<simply is not open to discussion.
<
<Richard Hendrickson

I seem to recall that you previously stated the same general idea during a
clinic I attended but qualified it to the demands on the railroad industry
by WWII which makes sense. But I model 1939 and the few color photos that I
have of mixed trains (circa 1943) don't show heavy weathering. It is
important to note that foreign freight cars on the YV tended to be western
roads...SP, ATSF, GN, NP, etc. So, was this heavy weathering a more
pronounced with eastern roads (likely in my mind) and also more pronounced
as the war dragged on for a couple more years?
Yes, and yes. Weathering and dirt on freight cars were subject to numerous variables I didn't take the time to discuss in detail, but location and era were certainly among them. Western RR cars that were confined mostly to the western states (e.g. stock cars) tended to be more faded by sun and cleaning chemicals and less grimy. The opposite was true of eastern RR cars that stayed mostly in the east (e.g., coal hoppers). It's also worth noting that, in general, the stack exhaust from the oil burning steam locomotives used out west was relatively less dirty than was the case with coal burners. And, of course, deferred maintenance during World War II left the North American freight car fleet much dirtier in the late '40s than it had been in the prewar period. As always in prototype modeling, one has to focus on the conditions at the location being modeled and at the exact point in time one's modeling represents.


Richard Hendrickson


Mikebrock
 

To add a few more observations, my modeling period of 1953/1954 features the introduction of a relatively large amount of new frt cars into the US fleet. This was the time during which the frt cars of WWII were being replaced by new cars. For example, the PS-1. I try to weather cars built after 1950 in a less "dirty" mode compared to earlier cars, particularly those not recently painted. In essence, the older the car, the more weathered the car. Add ten if the car spent time in Pittsburgh.

Richard is correct, I think, with regard to coal fired engines. Having been drenched by coal cinders produced by 3985, 1218, 611, and others, and having observed Steve Lee's newly acquired blackened face after running 3985 when coal fired, coal is indeed dirty. And, the coal fired industries of the northeast [ east of the Sierras of course ] helped.

I think Tony has it right. A mixture based on location and age.

Mike Brock


Armand Premo
 

A last word on the subject is that it is always easier to add to the weathering than it is to"unweather".Again,the cars on my layout are not uniformly weathered.I tend not to weather resin cars as I do with cars that are easy to replace.If I am modeling a specific car where I have sufficient photographic evidence I may have a heavier hand.My hoppers and gons run the gamut,house cars less so.It is difficult for me to spend hours in construction only to cover up all the fine detail with heavy weathering.After ail I do respect the opinion of my elders.<VBG> Armand Premo

----- Original Message -----
From: Richard Hendrickson
To: STMFC@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Wednesday, June 12, 2013 10:36 PM
Subject: Re: :[STMFC] Weathering freight cars



On Jun 12, 2013, at 5:59 PM, Jack Burgess <jack@yosemitevalleyrr.com> wrote:

> Richard mentioned
> <There is abundant photographic evidence that (1) steam era freight cars
> <were dirty and weathered roughly proportional to how long it had been
> <since they were repainted, (2) repainting was infrequent - seldom more
> <than every ten years or so and often much longer than that, and (3) cars
> <that had not been repainted for a long time were seriously faded and
> <filthy owing not only to weathering but to the grime continually
> <deposited on them from steam locomotive stacks and the mills and
> <factories adjacent to rail lines and freight yards. I think only those
> <who experienced it first hand can imagine how dirty railroads were in
> <the '30s-'40s-early '50s. Heavy weathering on at least some cars is far
> <from "a grievous error," as Armand claims; in fact it's an essential
> <element of realism. Sorry, but this fact is so well documented that it
> <simply is not open to discussion.
> <
> <Richard Hendrickson
>
> I seem to recall that you previously stated the same general idea during a
> clinic I attended but qualified it to the demands on the railroad industry
> by WWII which makes sense. But I model 1939 and the few color photos that I
> have of mixed trains (circa 1943) don't show heavy weathering. It is
> important to note that foreign freight cars on the YV tended to be western
> roads...SP, ATSF, GN, NP, etc. So, was this heavy weathering a more
> pronounced with eastern roads (likely in my mind) and also more pronounced
> as the war dragged on for a couple more years?
>
Yes, and yes. Weathering and dirt on freight cars were subject to numerous variables I didn't take the time to discuss in detail, but location and era were certainly among them. Western RR cars that were confined mostly to the western states (e.g. stock cars) tended to be more faded by sun and cleaning chemicals and less grimy. The opposite was true of eastern RR cars that stayed mostly in the east (e.g., coal hoppers). It's also worth noting that, in general, the stack exhaust from the oil burning steam locomotives used out west was relatively less dirty than was the case with coal burners. And, of course, deferred maintenance during World War II left the North American freight car fleet much dirtier in the late '40s than it had been in the prewar period. As always in prototype modeling, one has to focus on the conditions at the location being modeled and at the exact point in time one's modeling represents.

Richard Hendrickson


Mark Drake <markstation01@...>
 

Yea, last word, I think he got the message


Mark L. Drake
eBay ID member1108

From: Armand Premo <armprem2@surfglobal.net>
To: STMFC@yahoogroups.com
Sent: Thursday, June 13, 2013 5:56 AM
Subject: Re: :[STMFC] Weathering freight cars

 
A last word on the subject is that it is always easier to add to the weathering than it is to"unweather".Again,the cars on my layout are not uniformly weathered.I tend not to weather resin cars as I do with cars that are easy to replace.If I am modeling a specific car where I have sufficient photographic evidence I may have a heavier hand.My hoppers and gons run the gamut,house cars less so.It is difficult for me to spend hours in construction only to cover up all the fine detail with heavy weathering.After ail I do respect the opinion of my elders.<VBG> Armand Premo
----- Original Message -----
From: Richard Hendrickson
To: mailto:STMFC%40yahoogroups.com
Sent: Wednesday, June 12, 2013 10:36 PM
Subject: Re: :[STMFC] Weathering freight cars

On Jun 12, 2013, at 5:59 PM, Jack Burgess <mailto:jack%40yosemitevalleyrr.com> wrote:

Richard mentioned
<There is abundant photographic evidence that (1) steam era freight cars
<were dirty and weathered roughly proportional to how long it had been
<since they were repainted, (2) repainting was infrequent - seldom more
<than every ten years or so and often much longer than that, and (3) cars
<that had not been repainted for a long time were seriously faded and
<filthy owing not only to weathering but to the grime continually
<deposited on them from steam locomotive stacks and the mills and
<factories adjacent to rail lines and freight yards. I think only those
<who experienced it first hand can imagine how dirty railroads were in
<the '30s-'40s-early '50s. Heavy weathering on at least some cars is far
<from "a grievous error," as Armand claims; in fact it's an essential
<element of realism. Sorry, but this fact is so well documented that it
<simply is not open to discussion.
<
<Richard Hendrickson

I seem to recall that you previously stated the same general idea during a
clinic I attended but qualified it to the demands on the railroad industry
by WWII which makes sense. But I model 1939 and the few color photos that I
have of mixed trains (circa 1943) don't show heavy weathering. It is
important to note that foreign freight cars on the YV tended to be western
roads...SP, ATSF, GN, NP, etc. So, was this heavy weathering a more
pronounced with eastern roads (likely in my mind) and also more pronounced
as the war dragged on for a couple more years?
Yes, and yes. Weathering and dirt on freight cars were subject to numerous variables I didn't take the time to discuss in detail, but location and era were certainly among them. Western RR cars that were confined mostly to the western states (e.g. stock cars) tended to be more faded by sun and cleaning chemicals and less grimy. The opposite was true of eastern RR cars that stayed mostly in the east (e.g., coal hoppers). It's also worth noting that, in general, the stack exhaust from the oil burning steam locomotives used out west was relatively less dirty than was the case with coal burners. And, of course, deferred maintenance during World War II left the North American freight car fleet much dirtier in the late '40s than it had been in the prewar period. As always in prototype modeling, one has to focus on the conditions at the location being modeled and at the exact point in time one's modeling represents.

Richard Hendrickson

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


Charlie Duckworth
 

To me, weathering my freight cars is one of the most rewarding part of our hobby, it separates those who try to accurately model a railroad from those operate a model railroad.

I'll sit down with 'The Postwar Freight Car Fleet ' (Larry Kline and Ted Culotta) and WPA color shots of the freight cars shot in the CNW yards to get that 'final look'' I want for my model. Additional sources are the numerous articles published over the years by several members of this group. Weathering wood boxcar takes a different approach than doing a steel car but that's all part of the fun.

Using photographic evidence keeps one from over weathering a car, or in the case of a few PRR cars I have photos of it will give me the validation to keep pushing the envelope.

Great thread.
Charlie Duckworth


Clark Propst
 

Haven't read all the messages, so forgive me if this has already been suggested.

An easy way to 'fade' something is to spray it will Dullcoat, when dry spray it with alcohol. If you don't like the results spray with Dullcoat again. You can keep doing this this you're happy with the results or your HO scale model is S scale : )
Clark Propst


Benjamin Hom
 

Charlie Duckworth wrote:

"...WPA color shots of the freight cars shot in the CNW yards..."
 
NOT WPA.  The agencies commissioning the work in this collection were the Resettlement Administration, Farm Services Administration and later, the Office of War Information.  Too much folklore in the hobby without us adding more.
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/fsa/
 
 
Ben Hom


Charlie Duckworth
 

Ben
Thanks for the correction.

Charlie Duckworth

--- In STMFC@yahoogroups.com, Benjamin Hom <b.hom@...> wrote:

Charlie Duckworth wrote:

"...WPA color shots of the freight cars shot in the CNW yards..."
 
NOT WPA.  The agencies commissioning the work in this collection were the Resettlement Administration, Farm Services Administration and later, the Office of War Information.  Too much folklore in the hobby without us adding more.
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/fsa/
 
 
Ben Hom



michaelegross <michaelEGross@...>
 

Gentlemen,

My two cents on the excellent weathering notes that have already been offered by the group: as with most modeling, I think we come closest to verisimilitudeto fooling our viewers into thinking they are looking at a prototypewhen we model the common, the ordinary, as opposed to portraying the unusual and the extraordinary. This applies to weathering as much as it does to most modeling, and I often remind myself of this lest I go seriously "off the rails."

That's my rule, but as your model railroad is yoursand yours aloneyou should do anything you please.

Cheers!

Michael

Michael Gross
La Caada, CA






[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]